Heat can leave your body more rapidly whenever temperatures drop decidedly below normal. Losing heat when the blizzards are howling all around you is not pleasant, and the colder it gets, the greater the cooling effect of the wind.
Camping in the snow and other extreme cold weather conditions has its perks, but also presents unique challenges. There will be fewer people, and the best campsites are up for grabs. For a comfortable and fun trip during the cold season of the year, extra measures are necessary, and you have to know how to insulate a tent for winter camping.
Exposure to very low temperatures can be dangerous if you are not careful. Your tent will be the only shelter in an unpredictable wilderness. The key to proper insulation is preparation.
Essentials for Winter Camping
Sunglasses are not only a great fashion accessory, but it also protects your eyes from UV rays. It is highly recommended that you wear sunglasses to prevent snow blindness. Prolonged exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet rays reflecting off a snow-covered area can result in chronic and acute harmful effects on the eye’s retina and dioptric system. People living and camping in areas where snow covers the ground into early summer are even more at risk.
Multiple sets of clothes will help you to keep dry and warm. Warm pants, jackets, thermals, scarves, hats and other winter gear should be kept in waterproof bags. The cold winter air outside the tent will moisten your clothes. It is important to sleep in dry and clean clothes. Dirt, body oils and sweat can decrease a sleeping bag’s insulating ability over time. It is a good idea to sleep in clean and dry socks and long underwear.
You have to nest well during the long, cold winter nights. A down sleeping bag will keep you warm in sub-freezing temperatures. Two 3-season bags may also be an option. You can fit one inside the other. A good-quality sleeping bag liner will provide great insulation against the cold.
Air mattresses generate convection currents in the air tubes and should be avoided during winter camping. Campers usually have two sleeping pads for better insulation against the cold from the ground.
Waterproof shoes or hiking boots for winter camping are best to wear when winter camping. Warmth, traction and boot height is important if there is deep snow in your area. Most high-quality winter boots are comfortable and breathable. Tight-fitting boots and extra socks will cut off circulation.
Know the Weather
Extreme cold and snowstorms create a higher risk of hypothermia, overexertion and frostbite. Blizzards and winter storms can bring cold, high winds, ice, freezing rain and snow. If there is a winter storm warning, know it may last for at least a few hours or several days, and place you at greater risk. Dress warmly, stay inside the tent and limit your time outside.
Pitching a Tent in Snow
Try to find a spot with lots of brush or trees around it. It is not recommended to set up underneath trees or limbs that look damaged or unstable. Branches can fall on the tent in high-wind conditions. If you camp beyond the tree line you will probably find mostly flat areas and snow. Rock formations offer excellent protection against the wind.
Selecting a site for pitching a tent is the first thing you will have to focus on. The sun will help you warm up in the mornings. Try to find a spot that offers exposure to sunrise.
Make very sure you are not in an avalanche zone or on or below a slope. It is highly recommended for you to take an avalanche awareness class at home before you go on a winter camping trip. Avalanche forecasts are not always accurate, and you should be able to know what potential hazards exist in the specific area.
Dig the snow out the area underneath the tent and flatten the surface where you are going to sleep. Snow often melts from the heat of your body, then refreezes and create uncomfortable grooves and bumps.
A snow wall, about three quarters the height of the tent, will lessen the impact of the wind. Standard tent stakes will not be of much help in the snow. Instead, use stakes that are specifically designed for securing tents in the snow.
You can anchor your tent by attaching a nylon rope to the tie-off point on your tent and then tie the other end around a stick or rock. Bury the stick or rock in a pile of snow and let it freeze overnight.
Always look for landmarks. It will help you find your camping site in a snowstorm or in the dark.
Keeping the Wind and Snow Out While Winter Camping
Many winter campers are aware of the dangers of extreme weather. For a warm stay during the cold season of the year, extra measures are necessary, and you have to know how to insulate a tent for winter camping. Wind is a powerful force in nature, and temperatures can drop drastically once it starts to blow. If weather forecasts predict blizzards or high wind, you have to know the risks involved. Visibility can quickly be reduced to extremely short distances in a snowstorm.
A windbreak may protect you and also prevent potential damage to your tent. You can pitch your tent in the bush for protection, or you can tie the ends of the tarp to sharpened poles that are inserted in the ground. Add a couple of extra poles along the sides and in the middle for reinforcement.
Snow provides excellent insulation against the wind. You can create a snow fence by collecting softwood pieces that are about six feet in length. Use wire to connect the wood. Once the wind gets up, the windbreak will catch the snow and form a natural wall.
Rocks, fallen branches and scrub can be used to build a barrier to protect you against the forces. In cold weather, wind may affect breathing, accelerate dehydration and carry the heat away from the body.
Tarps may rip out poles and tents stakes. In high-wind situations, it is better to tie the tarp to structures or trees. You will be better off blocking the smallest possible area rather than trying to create a large wind-break.
How to Insulate a Tent for Winter Camping
If you do not have a four-season tent, you may need to add insulation. A tarp under the tent will prevent moisture from seeping through. Space blankets are light-weight and can be used as insulation in the tent. Attach the blanket to the ceiling of the tent with duct tape. It will reflect most of the heat in the tent back down at you.
To ensure comfort, a sleeping bag rating at least 10° Fahrenheit is a good idea. A high-quality temperature rated sleeping bag’s insulation can be increased by using a fleece liner wrapped around you.
For warmth and comfort, you can place sleeping pads on top of an air mattress. The latter does not offer much insulation against the cold ground beneath you. A closed-cell foam pad offers good insulation.
You can also cover the floor of the tent with space blankets. Regular blankets tend to be heavy, take a lot of space and are difficult to pack. Insulation materials can be mixed and matched to keep you warm. Sometimes you will have to improvise, use what is available and keep yourself warm and safe.
How to Sleep Warm in Low Temperatures
Sleep under layers that you can easily remove. If you start to sweat, you need to remove some of the layers. Heat escapes the body through the head. Wear a wool cap while you sleep. A knit hat is better than sleeping with your head inside the sleeping bag. It is also important to make sure your socks are completely dry when you get ready to sleep.
Heating up a few rocks by your fire for extra warmth in the tent is a good idea. Pull it away from the heat and let it cool down for a while. Once it cooled, but still warm, you simply wrap it in a towel and place it in the center of the tent or in the foot of your sleeping bag. The space blanket attached to the ceiling of the tent will reflect the heat back at you, and keep you warm for hours.
There are safe, efficient heaters available on the market that can provide warmth for seven hours on a single 16-ounce can of propane. The legs can fold up, and the handle makes it easy to carry. You can run the heater before you go to sleep and again when you wake up in the morning.
Your body uses a lot of energy when exposed to cold. Foods high in calories will work well in keeping your body generate heat throughout the night. If you want to keep warm while sleeping, you should eat slow digesting foods like cheese, nuts and chocolate.
It is very important to stay hydrated even during winter. Water and other liquids will help your digestion to work better.
Managing Condensation in the tent
Ventilation will reduce condensation and dampness in the tent. Your breath and the heat from your body inside the tent at night can build up enough condensation to get your sleeping bag damp.
Keep moist and wet items outside the tent. These items will absorb the heat inside the tent you are trying to maintain. You can easily stay dry once you know how to insulate a tent for winter camping.
Designate an area for gathering snow. Do not melt and boil the snow inside the tent. The steam of the water will condensate and rain down on your sleeping bag and floor insulation.
Recognize Cold Injuries
Extreme cold and snowstorms create a higher risk of frostbite, heart attacks from overexertion, and hypothermia. During a winter storm, it is best to limit your time outside. Body temperatures below 95° are an emergency.
Mornings are usually the toughest time to be out in the winter cold. Temperatures will drop to their lowest just after the first appearance of light before sunrise. When the sun rises, it does not get warmer immediately. If you feel cold, you can do deep knee bends, sit-ups or go for a walk after you have eaten. Your body will generate more energy from nutrients and some exercise.
Signs of hypothermia are typically drowsiness, fumbling hands, slurred speech, confusion, loss of memory, exhaustion or shivering. Warm the body as soon as possible. Keep the groin, chest, neck and head dry and wrapped in blankets. You should first warm the center of the body and then the rest.
The signs of frostbite are typically waxy or grayish skin, numbness, loss of feeling and color around the toes, fingers or face. Use body heat to warm. Frostbite should not be massaged.
Consuming alcohol before you go out in the cold is never a good idea because it can elevate the risk of hypothermia. You may feel warm even though your body is losing heat. Alcohol increases blood flow.
It is advisable to pay attention to weather warnings and reports of winter storms and freezing cold conditions before you go on winter camping. Warnings are usually issued when freezing weather is possible in the area.
The key to proper insulation is preparation. With your food, clothing and shelter in line, you are all set to step into a winter wonderland of arctic-white snow and winter trees with naked branches. It is not really all that difficult to stay dry and warm in the cold, icy weather once you know how to insulate a tent for winter camping. All you need for a successful winter camping experience, is proper nutrition, sufficient hydration, warmer clothes and the right gear.